Clinical research

The following scientific publications detail the research that Dr. Ken McLeod and his associates have conducted on the role of calf muscle pump activity, which led to the development of the Sonostics HeartPartner.

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  1. Lynn Baniak, Carolyn Pierce, Kenneth McLeod and Eileen Chasens (2016) Association of Calf Muscle Pump Stimulation With Sleep Quality in Adults. Res Nurs Health 39(6):406-414.
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  2. Lynn Baniak, Carolyn Pierce, Erik Hiester and Kenneth McLeod (2014) Calf Muscle Pump Stimulation as a Means to Reverse Symptoms of Fibromyalgia Syndrome. J Biol Res Nursing 17(3):334-9.
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  3. Kenneth J. McLeod and Carolyn Pierce (2013) Cardiomyopathy in Women: Second Heart Failure, Cardiomyopathies, Prof. Jose Milei (Ed.), InTech, DOI: 10.5772/55433.
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  4. Carolyn Pierce and Kenneth J. McLeod, (2009) Feasibility of treatment of lower limb edema with calf muscle pump stimulation in chronic heart failure. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 8:345-348.
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  5. Carolyn Pierce, Janice Pecen and Kenneth McLeod (2009) Influence of Seated Rocking on Blood Pressure in the Elderly: Implications for improving cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer’s patients. Biol Res Nurs. 11(2):144-51.
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  6. Kenneth J. McLeod, Leann Lesperance and Craig Laramee (2009) Influence of indoor cooling on heat balance and body weight gain in Americans over recent decades. J. Thermal Biology 34:385-390.
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  7. Guruprasad Madhavan, Mary Nemcek, David Martinez and Kenneth J. McLeod (2009) Enhancing Hemodialysis Efficacy through Neuromuscular Stimulation. Blood Purification. 27:58-63.
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  8. Guruprasad Madhavan and Kenneth McLeod (2008) Prevalence and etiology of delayed orthostatic hypotension in adult women. Archives Phys. Med. Rehab. 89:1788-1794.
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  9. Ayana Goddard, Carolyn Pierce and Kenneth J. McLeod (2008) Reversal of lower limb edema by calf muscle pump stimulation. J. Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention 28(3):174-9.
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  10. Carolyn Pierce, Guruprasad Madhavan and Kenneth J. McLeod (2006) Emerging Approaches in the Prevention of Osteoporosis, Osteoporosis: Clinical Guidelines for Prevention, Diagnosis, and Management, S.H. Gueldner ed.
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  11. Guruprasad Madhavan, Julian M. Stewart, and Kenneth J. McLeod (2006) Cardiovascular systemic regulation by plantar surface stimulation. Biomed. Instr. & Tech. 40: 78-84.
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  12. Victor Frankel and Kenneth J. McLeod (2005) Calf muscle pump stimulation as an adjunct to orthopaedic surgery. Surgical Technologies International. 14:297-304.
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  13. Guruprasad Madhavan, Julian M. Stewart and Kenneth J. McLeod (2005) Effect of plantar micromechanical stimulation on cardiovascular responses to immobility. Am. J. Physical Medicine 84:338-345.
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  14. Julian M. Stewart, Carol Karman, Leslie Montgomery and K. J. McLeod (2005) Plantar vibration improves leg fluid flow in perimenopausal women. Am. J. Physiol. Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 288:R623-R629.
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  15. Julian Stewart, Marvin Medow, Leslie Montgomery and Kenneth McLeod (2003) Decreased skeletal muscle pump activity in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome patients with low peripheral blood flow. Am. J. Physiol. (Heart and Circulatory Physiology) 286:H1216-H1222.
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